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Monday, October 1

  1. page 1934 edited ... 1934 Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002 (1934), US Billboard 13 - 1934 (2 weeks), Music Imprint 17 o…
    ...
    1934
    Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002 (1934), US Billboard 13 - 1934 (2 weeks), Music Imprint 17 of 1930s, nuTsie 48 of 1930s, RIAA 207, Acclaimed 860 (1934)
    {http://i246.photobucket.com/albums/gg82/Squidpup/chitrib34.jpg}
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    1:17 pm

Saturday, September 22

  1. page WWI and WWII in Belgium edited In World War I (1914 - 1918), 99 percent of Belgium was overrun, occupied, and ruled by the Ger…

    In World War I (1914 - 1918), 99 percent of Belgium was overrun, occupied, and ruled by the German Empire.
    World War I
    ...
    The Battle of Liège was the opening engagement of the German invasion of Belgium, and the first battle of World War I[1]. The attack on the city began on 5 August 1914[2] and lasted until the 16th when the last Belgian fort finally surrendered. The invasion of Belgium was the event that triggered the United Kingdom's entry into the war; the unexpected vigor of the city's defense allowed more time for the western Allies to organize and prepare their defense of France. (read more)
    {Belgium WWI photo.jpg} Street scene in Ghent, Belgium following German occupation 1919
    WWII in Belgium
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Wacht_am_Rhein_map_%28Opaque%29.svg/500px-Wacht_am_Rhein_map_%28Opaque%29.svg.png}
    The Battle of the Bulge (also known as the Ardennes Offensive and the Von Rundstedt Offensive to the Germans) (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive (die Ardennenoffensive), launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, and France and Luxembourg on the Western Front. TheWehrmacht's code name for the offensive was Unternehmen Wacht am Rhein ("Operation Watch on the Rhine"), after the German patriotic hymn Die Wacht am Rhein. The French name for the operation is Bataille des Ardennes.
    There are several American names for this battle. The first was the description given to the way the Allied front line bulged inward on wartime news maps, which was reported in the contemporary press as the Battle of the Bulge.[19][h][20] The battle was militarily defined as the Ardennes Counteroffensive, which included the German drive and the American effort to contain and later defeat it. Following the war, the U.S. Army issued a campaign citation for its units fighting in northwest Europe at the time. This was called the Ardennes-Alsace campaign and included the Ardennes sector (of the Ardennes Counteroffensive fighting) and units further south in the Alsace sector. The latter units were not involved except for elements sent northward as reinforcements. While the Ardennes Counteroffensive is correct military parlance, because the official Ardennes-Alsace campaign covers much more than the Ardennes battle region, the most popular description remains simply the Battle of the Bulge.
    The German offensive was supported by several subordinate operations known as Unternehmen Bodenplatte, Greif, and Währung.Germany's goal for these operations was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp and then proceed toencircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis Powers' favour.[21] Once accomplished, Hitler could fully concentrate on the eastern theatre of war.
    The offensive was planned with the utmost secrecy, minimizing radio traffic and moving troops and equipment under cover of darkness. Although Ultra suggested a possible attack and the Third U.S. Army's intelligence staff predicted a major German offensive, the Allies were still caught by surprise. This was achieved by a combination of Allied overconfidence, preoccupation with their own offensive plans, and poor aerial reconnaissance.
    Near-complete surprise against a weakly defended section of the Allied line was achieved during heavy overcast weather, which grounded the Allies' overwhelmingly superior air forces. Fierce resistance, particularly around the key town of Bastogne, and terrain favouring the defenders threw the German timetable behind schedule. Allied reinforcements, including General George S. Patton's Third Army, and improving weather conditions, which permitted air attacks on German forces and supply lines, sealed the failure of the offensive.
    In the wake of the defeat, many experienced German units were left severely depleted of men and equipment as survivors retreated to the defenses of the Siegfried Line. For the Americans, with about 610,000 men[2] committed and some 89,000 casualties,[12] including 19,000 killed,[12][16] the Battle of the Bulge was the largest and bloodiest battle that they fought in World War II. (read more...)

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    6:00 pm
  2. page Glossary of Terms, Places and Things edited ... On January 13th, the Division mounted a two pronged spearhead attack from the Bastogne enclave…
    ...
    On January 13th, the Division mounted a two pronged spearhead attack from the Bastogne enclave, moving from Longchamps northwesterly through Bertogne, and northeasterly through Foy and Noville to high ground south of Houffalize. Contact was made with the 2nd Armored Division of the First Army on January 16th, ending the Nazi ill fated attempt to reach Antwerp, to divide the allied forces, and to retake Luxembourg and Belgium. The enemy suffered huge losses in men and materiel, and the way was opened for an all out assault on the vaunted Siegfried line, and on Germany itself.
    (Read more...)
    ...
    the men
    responsible for the capture of Neufchateau-Bastogne."
    See above for Eleventh Armored involvement.
    (view changes)
    5:56 pm
  3. page Glossary of Terms, Places and Things edited ... The German attack through the Ardennes caused an abrupt change of orders. The Division embarke…
    ...
    The German attack through the Ardennes caused an abrupt change of orders. The Division embarked on one of the most grueling forced marches in American military history, covering over 350 miles across France in four days. By December 23rd, the division had joined General George S. Patton’s US Third Army, and was deployed defensively along a 30 mile reach of the Meuse River, extending from Sedan to Givet. Shortly afterward, orders came to advance another 85 miles northeasterly into Belgium, assuming attack positions in the vicinity of Neufchateau.
    The first combat occurred on December 30th, when the Division engaged head-on the fanatical Füher Begleit Brigade and the Panzer Lehr Division south of Remagne. Over the next several days, a furious battle raged, as these enemy forces along with the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division and the 26th Volksgrenadier Division sought to close the relief corridor into Bastogne from the south. The 11th Armored and adjacent units fought them to a standstill. During this period, the Division suffered heavy casualties from enemy action, as well as from the bitter cold. However, the enemy paid a heavier price, and the vital supply line into Bastogne remained open.
    ...
    Bastogne enclave,
    moving
    moving from Longchamps
    (Read more...)
    Pg. 46 - Capture of Neufchateau-Bastogne - MARC (reading letter to Teddy Jr from Teddy Sr) "I am very surprised that you were one of the men
    responsible for the capture of Neufchateau-Bastogne."
    See above for Eleventh Armored involvement.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/7/7a/Bastogne_resupply1944_sm.jpg/769px-Bastogne_resupply1944_sm.jpg} File:Bastogne resupply1944 sm.jpg
    The Siege of Bastogne was an engagement between American and German forces at the Belgian town of Bastogne, as part of the larger Battle of the Bulge. The goal of the German offensive was the harbour at Antwerp. In order to reach it before the Allies could regroup and bring their superior air power to bear, German mechanized forces had to seize the roadways through eastern Belgium. Because all seven main roads in the Ardennes mountain range converged on the small town of Bastogne, control of its crossroads was vital to the German attack. The siege lasted from 20–27 December when the besieged American forces were relieved by elements of General George Patton's 3rd Army.
    (read more...)

    Pg. 47 - King Albert - MARC: "When I was a boy I idolized King Albert."
    {http://www.famousbelgians.net/picts/spacer.gif}
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  4. page Glossary of Terms, Places and Things edited ... About 600 species are native to Australia and various Pacific Ocean islands, with the rest nat…
    ...
    About 600 species are native to Australia and various Pacific Ocean islands, with the rest native to either Africa or the Americas. Acacias are especially numerous on the plains of southern and eastern Africa, where they are well-known landmarks on the veld and savanna.
    ==
    ==
    Pg. 32 - Little Darling, mignonette - MARC: "It's a Little Darling. A mignonette, if you want to know the real name."
    {http://www.swallowtailgardenseeds.com/assets/mignonette_white_fl_29.jpg}
    ...
    And here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desdemona,_Texas
    Pg. 44 - Eleventh Armored - Teddy Jr: "I fought over here, with the Eleventh Armored."
    "The Thunderbolts"
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/11th_US_Armored_Division_SSI.svg/200px-11th_US_Armored_Division_SSI.svg.png}
    The 11th Armored Division has a proud and distinguished heritage. It served with honor to defend the nation, and to preserve the cherished freedom that the United States of America and its citizens have long enjoyed. The Division was activated on August 15, 1942, at Camp Polk, Louisiana. Soon after the Division was formed and staffed, a period of intense training ensued, first in Louisiana, then in Texas, and finally in California. In September, 1944, the well armed and equipped Division embarked for Europe, landing in England for final staging and preparation for combat. In early December, 1944, the Division deployed to the continent, landing in France, and making preparations to attack German pockets of resistance on the coast of Brittany.
    When enemy forces mounted a desperate attack in the Ardennes Forest of Belgium, the Division was rerouted, rushed across France, and committed into action in what was soon to be known as the Battle of the Bulge. The 11th Armored Division was then assigned to the US Third Army, commanded by General George Smith Patton. Upon reaching the battle zone, the Division attacked, encountering a simultaneous headlong attack by German units that were seeking to close off the recently opened corridor into besieged Bastogne. Although sustaining heavy battle casualties, the Division continued the attack, closing with US First Army units on January 16, 1945 at Houffalize, Belgium, finally terminating the "Bulge" incursion.
    A Brief History of the Thunderbolt Division
    The 11th Armored Division was activated on August 15, 1942 at Camp Polk, Louisiana. From that date until June, 1944, the Division underwent combat training at Polk and Camp Barkeley Texas, desert maneuvers at Camp Ibis, California, and combat readiness training at Camp Cooke, California.
    In July 1944, preparations began for overseas deployment. On September 27th, the division embarked from Staten Island, New York, aboard the troop ships HMS Samaria and USS Hermitage to join the largest Atlantic convoy of WWII. On October 12th the troops disembarked on English soil, moving into training quarters on and near the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire.
    In early December, the Division was deployed to continental Europe, landing in Normandy, and moving south to a marshaling area at Rennes. The intended mission was to reduce remaining pockets of enemy resistance along the French coast at Lorient and Saint Nazaire.
    The German attack through the Ardennes caused an abrupt change of orders. The Division embarked on one of the most grueling forced marches in American military history, covering over 350 miles across France in four days. By December 23rd, the division had joined General George S. Patton’s US Third Army, and was deployed defensively along a 30 mile reach of the Meuse River, extending from Sedan to Givet. Shortly afterward, orders came to advance another 85 miles northeasterly into Belgium, assuming attack positions in the vicinity of Neufchateau.
    The first combat occurred on December 30th, when the Division engaged head-on the fanatical Füher Begleit Brigade and the Panzer Lehr Division south of Remagne. Over the next several days, a furious battle raged, as these enemy forces along with the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division and the 26th Volksgrenadier Division sought to close the relief corridor into Bastogne from the south. The 11th Armored and adjacent units fought them to a standstill. During this period, the Division suffered heavy casualties from enemy action, as well as from the bitter cold. However, the enemy paid a heavier price, and the vital supply line into Bastogne remained open.
    On January 13th, the Division mounted a two pronged spearhead attack from the Bastogne enclave,
    moving from Longchamps northwesterly through Bertogne, and northeasterly through Foy and Noville to high ground south of Houffalize. Contact was made with the 2nd Armored Division of the First Army on January 16th, ending the Nazi ill fated attempt to reach Antwerp, to divide the allied forces, and to retake Luxembourg and Belgium. The enemy suffered huge losses in men and materiel, and the way was opened for an all out assault on the vaunted Siegfried line, and on Germany itself.
    (Read more...)

    Pg. 47 - King Albert - MARC: "When I was a boy I idolized King Albert."
    {http://www.famousbelgians.net/picts/spacer.gif}
    (view changes)
    5:42 pm
  5. page Glossary of Terms, Places and Things edited ... acacia, any of about 800 species of trees and shrubs comprising a genus (Acacia) in the pea fa…
    ...
    acacia, any of about 800 species of trees and shrubs comprising a genus (Acacia) in the pea family(Fabaceae) and native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly Australia (there called wattles) and Africa. Acacias’ distinctive leaves take the form of small, finely divided leaflets that give the leafstalk a feathery or fernlike (i.e., pinnate) appearance. In many Australian and Pacific species, the leaflets are suppressed or absent altogether, and the leafstalks (petioles) are flattened and perform the physiological functions of leaves. The leafstalks may be vertically arranged and bear thorns or sharp spines at their base. Acacias are also distinguished by their small, often fragrant flowers, which are arranged in compact globular or cylindrical clusters. The flowers are usually yellow but occasionally white and have many stamens apiece, giving each one a fuzzy appearance.
    About 600 species are native to Australia and various Pacific Ocean islands, with the rest native to either Africa or the Americas. Acacias are especially numerous on the plains of southern and eastern Africa, where they are well-known landmarks on the veld and savanna.
    ==
    ==
    Pg. 32 - Little Darling, mignonette - MARC: "It's a Little Darling. A mignonette, if you want to know the real name."
    {http://www.swallowtailgardenseeds.com/assets/mignonette_white_fl_29.jpg}
    Mignonette (Reseda) is a genus of fragrant herbaceous plants native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia, from the Canary Islands andIberia east to northwest India.
    Mignonette flowers are extremely fragrant. It is grown for the sweet ambrosial scent of its flowers. It is used in flower arrangements, perfumes andpotpourri. A Victorian favourite, it was commonly grown in pots and in window-boxes to scent the city air. It was used as a sedative and a treatment for bruises in Roman times.
    Pg. 38 - Walloon French Translations
    MARC: "Qui est la?" = Who is it?
    TEDDY: "Je m'appelle" = My name is...
    Pg. 42 - Desdemona, TX - HOLLY: "Then just after my momma died he bought this patch of dirt in Desdemona..."
    Desdemona is a former oil boomtown and virtual ghost town located in Eastland County east of Abilene in West Texas.
    {http://www.ouramericanfamilies.com/img/wynn/desdemona_boom.jpg}
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Desdemona_oil_field.jpg}
    Boomtown
    In 1914, businessman J.W. "Shorty" Carruth drilled a shallow unproductive oil well and began selling stock in his Carruth Oil Company though he misrepresented the actual value of its worth. In 1923, a federal grand jury indicted Carruth for using the mail to defraud investors of some $7 million. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year in the federal penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas. The presiding judge likened Carruth to a "highwayman".[2]
    In September 1918, Tom Dees, director of the Hog Creek Oil Company, struck oil on land owned by Joe Duke, and Desdemona quickly joined the list of western boomtowns. As many as sixteen thousand flocked to Desdemona between 1919 and 1922. At this time, the Desdemona field was perhaps the second largest in the oil belt, and stockholders of the Hog Creek Oil Company could sell their $100 shares for $10,250 each.
    Oil production dropped from more than seven million barrels in 1919 to fewer than three million in 1921. The boom ended nearly as quickly as it began, and much of the newer population abandoned the community. Another fire in 1921 destroyed an entire block. The Lone Star Hotel was also burned. With few residents, Desdemona dissolved its municipal government in 1936, and the general area has since been governed by Eastland County. The Desdemona public school (grades 1-12) was built in 1922, expanded as a Works Progress Administration project in 1937, and closed because of lack of enrollment in 1969.
    Read more here:
    http://www.texasescapes.com/TexasGhostTowns/Desdemona-Texas.htm
    And here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desdemona,_Texas

    Pg. 47 - King Albert - MARC: "When I was a boy I idolized King Albert."
    {http://www.famousbelgians.net/picts/spacer.gif}
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    5:31 pm

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