Pg. 10 - Treacle - IRIS: "It's my worst nightmare that somebody actually heard the treacle that fell off my lips back then."


noun1. contrived or unrestrained sentimentality: a movie plot of the most shameless treacle.

Pg. 10 - comment allez-vous - IRIS: "All those years of French lessons, comment allez-vous and all that..."
English Translation: "How are you?"Pronunciation: kom-mohn tah-lay voo

Pg. 10 - Semaphore - IRIS: "Anyway, through some kind of semaphore I helped my maid to understand..."

1. A visual signaling apparatus with flags, lights, or mechanically moving arms, as one used on a railroad.
2. A visual system for sending information by means of two flags that are held one in each hand, using an alphabetic code based on the position of the signaler's arms.

Pg. 14 - Walloon French - MARC: "It took this cane and all the Walloon French I've mastered..."

Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that was spoken as a primary language in large portions (70%) of the Walloon Region of Belgium and some villages of Northern France (near Givet) until the middle of the 20th century. It belongs to the langue d'oïl language family, whose most prominent member is the French language. The historical background of its formation was the territorial extension since 980 of the Principality of Liège to the south and west. Read more...

Read more about Wallonia

Pg. 15 - Huns - MARC: "When I was in the service I never felt any remorse about dispatching the Hunt's foot soldiers."

20th century use in reference to Germans


On July 27, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in China, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave the order to act ruthlessly towards the rebels: "Mercy will not be shown, prisoners will not be taken. Just as a thousand years ago, the Huns under Attila won a reputation of might that lives on in legends, so may the name of Germany in China, such that no Chinese will even again dare so much as to look askance at a German."

This speech gave rise to later use of the term "Hun" for the Germans during World War I. The comparison was helped by the Pickelhaube or spiked helmet worn by German forces until 1916, which was reminiscent of images depicting ancient Hun helmets. This usage, emphasising the idea that the Germans were barbarians, was reinforced by Allied propaganda throughout the war. The French songwriter Theodore Botrel described the Kaiser as "an Attila, without remorse", launching "cannibal hordes".

The usage of the term "Hun" to describe a German resurfaced during World War II. For example Winston Churchill referred in 1941 to the invasion of the Soviet Union as "the dull, drilled, docile brutish masses of the Hun soldiery, plodding on like a swarm of crawling locusts."[64] During this time American President Franklin D. Roosevelt also referred to the German people in this way, saying that an Allied invasion into the South of France would surely "be successful and of great assistance to Eisenhower in driving the Huns from France."[65] Nevertheless, its use was less widespread than in the previous war. British and American WWII troops more often used the term "Jerry" or "Kraut" for their German opponents.

Pg. 16 - Grant's Tomb - MARC: "He took us all the way uptown to Grant's tomb....A tomb with a view"


General Grant National Memorial (as designated by the United States [[#|Congress]]), better known as Grant's Tomb, is a mausoleum containing the bodies of Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), American [[#|Civil War]] General and 18th President of the United States, and his wife, Julia Dent Grant (1826–1902). The tomb complex in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City is a presidential memorial managed by the National Park Service. The structure is situated in a prominent location in Riverside Park overlooking the Hudson River.

Pg. 17 - Croesus - Marc: "What do you mean? Your father's rich as Croseus."

Croesus (pronounced "KREE-sus") was the king of Lydia from 560 to 547 BC until his defeat by the Persians. The fall of Croesus made a profound impact on the Hellenes, providing a fixed point in their calendar. "By the fifth century at least," J.A.S. Evans remarked, "Croesus had become a figure of myth, who stood outside the conventional restraints of chronology." Croesus was renowned for his wealth—[[#|Herodotus]] and Pausanias noted his gifts preserved at Delphi.

the expression "rich as Croesus" came from this king. The Lydian Empire came to an end when Croesus attacked the Persian Empire of Cyrus II and was defeated in 546 BC.


Pg. 17 - the Ardennes - IRIS: "A little touch of Newport in the Ardennes."

The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rolling hills and ridges formed within the Givetian (Devonian) Ardennes mountain range,[1] primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes department and the Champagne-Ardenne région), and geologically into the Eifel. In Wallonia, the word 'Ardenne' in the singular is commonly used for the Belgian part of the region and in the plural for the French one. Ardenne is the origin of the great industrial period of Wallonia, the second of the world (18th, 19th and 20th centuries). In France, the word 'Ardennes' in the plural, together with the definite article, is commonly used to refer to the French department of that name.

(read more)


Pg. 25 - Ypres Cigarettes - MARC: "They're really wonderful. Ypres cigarettes."

Ypres is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. Though Ieper is the Dutch and local name, Ypres is most commonly used in English. The municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Brielen, Dikkebus, Elverdinge, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Vlamertinge, Voormezele, Zillebeke, and Zuidschote. Together, they count some 34,900 inhabitants.
During World War I, Ypres was the centre of intense and sustained battles between the German and the Allied forces. During the war, due to it being hard to pronounce in English, British troops nicknamed the city "Wipers".

Pronounced technically "EE-preh," colloquially "wipers."

(read more...)

Pg. 25 - Sheik of Araby - MARC: "...all about how you need to put the down payment on a yacht you want to buy from the Sheik of Araby."

"The Sheik of Araby" is a song that was written by Harry B. Smith, Francis Wheeler and music by Ted Snyder in 1921. It was composed in response to the popularity of the Rudolph Valentino film The Sheik. In 1926 it received new lyrics written by Billy Rose and was retitled "That Night in Araby".
It was a Tin Pan Alley hit, and was also adopted by early jazz bands, especially in New Orleans, making it a jazz standard. It was a well recognized part of popular culture, earning a mention in The Great Gatsby.

The "Araby" in the title refers to Arabia or the Arabian Peninsula.

The song featured in the film Valentino (1977) with words of parody by Ken Russell, performed by Chris Ellis. A verse also appears in the novel The Great Gatsby (1925) by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

Django Reinhardt

Beatles version w/ 1926 lyrics:

Pg. 27 - Shamokin - LUCINDA: "Have you ever heard of a town called Shamokin?"

Shamokin was incorporated as a borough on November 9, 1864, and as a city on February 21, 1949. In addition to anthracite coal-mining, it also had silk and knitting mills (the Eagle Silk Mill became the largest textile building under one roof in America), stocking and shirt factories, wagon shops, ironworks, and brickyards.

Most notably, Thomas Edison, briefly a resident of Sunbury, established the Edison Illuminating Company of Shamokin in the fall of 1882. Operation of the Shamokin station (located at the current Independence Street site of Jones Hardware Company) on September 22, 1883, at which time St. Edward's Catholic Church became the first church in the world to have electric lighting.

At its peak in the 1920’s, the combined population of Shamokin and Coal Township was 50,000 with the main industries being Coal Mining and silk from the J.H. & C.K. Eagle Silk Mills.

Distance from Shamokin to New York City: 160 miles
More info here:


Pg. 27 - Empire Coffee Shop - LUCINDA: "One morning I was eating breakfast in the Empire Coffee Shop when Theodore tapped me on the shoulder."

This Empire Coffee Shop has been in New York supposedly since 1908.

This is a New York Coffee shop from the 1920s that may be more the idea of where Teddy met Lucinda:


Pg. 28 - millstones - LUCINDA: (in regards to whether they are diamonds on her ring) "So I'm told. They feel like millstones."

Millstones or mill stones are stones used in grist mills, for grinding wheat or other grains. However it has another colloquialism meaning:
a heavy burden, such as a responsibility or obligation: his debts were a millstone round his neck.

Pg. 28 - Acacia tree - MARK: "That's my son. By the acacia tree."


In the "language of flowers" acacia symbolizes a secret love.

Acacia - pronunciation here:

acacia, any of about 800 species of trees and shrubs comprising a genus (Acacia) in the pea family(Fabaceae) and native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly Australia (there called wattles) and Africa. Acacias’ distinctive leaves take the form of small, finely divided leaflets that give the leafstalk a feathery or fernlike (i.e., pinnate) appearance. In many Australian and Pacific species, the leaflets are suppressed or absent altogether, and the leafstalks (petioles) are flattened and perform the physiological functions of leaves. The leafstalks may be vertically arranged and bear thorns or sharp spines at their base. Acacias are also distinguished by their small, often fragrant flowers, which are arranged in compact globular or cylindrical clusters. The flowers are usually yellow but occasionally white and have many stamens apiece, giving each one a fuzzy appearance.
About 600 species are native to Australia and various Pacific Ocean islands, with the rest native to either Africa or the Americas. Acacias are especially numerous on the plains of southern and eastern Africa, where they are well-known landmarks on the veld and savanna.



Pg. 32 - Little Darling, mignonette - MARC: "It's a Little Darling. A mignonette, if you want to know the real name."

external image mignonette_white_fl_29.jpg

Mignonette (Reseda) is a genus of fragrant herbaceous plants native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia, from the Canary Islands andIberia east to northwest India.

Mignonette flowers are extremely fragrant. It is grown for the sweet ambrosial scent of its flowers. It is used in flower arrangements, perfumes andpotpourri. A Victorian favourite, it was commonly grown in pots and in window-boxes to scent the city air. It was used as a sedative and a treatment for bruises in Roman times.

Pg. 38 - Walloon French Translations

  • MARC: "Qui est la?" = Who is it?
  • TEDDY: "Je m'appelle" = My name is...

Pg. 42 - Desdemona, TX - HOLLY: "Then just after my momma died he bought this patch of dirt in Desdemona..."

Desdemona is a former oil boomtown and virtual ghost town located in Eastland County east of Abilene in West Texas.

external image desdemona_boom.jpg

external image Desdemona_oil_field.jpg


In 1914, businessman J.W. "Shorty" Carruth drilled a shallow unproductive oil well and began selling stock in his Carruth Oil Company though he misrepresented the actual value of its worth. In 1923, a federal grand jury indicted Carruth for using the mail to defraud investors of some $7 million. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year in the federal penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas. The presiding judge likened Carruth to a "highwayman".[2]
In September 1918, Tom Dees, director of the Hog Creek Oil Company, struck oil on land owned by Joe Duke, and Desdemona quickly joined the list of western boomtowns. As many as sixteen thousand flocked to Desdemona between 1919 and 1922. At this time, the Desdemona field was perhaps the second largest in the oil belt, and stockholders of the Hog Creek Oil Company could sell their $100 shares for $10,250 each.

Oil production dropped from more than seven million barrels in 1919 to fewer than three million in 1921. The boom ended nearly as quickly as it began, and much of the newer population abandoned the community. Another fire in 1921 destroyed an entire block. The Lone Star Hotel was also burned. With few residents, Desdemona dissolved its municipal government in 1936, and the general area has since been governed by Eastland County. The Desdemona public school (grades 1-12) was built in 1922, expanded as a Works Progress Administration project in 1937, and closed because of lack of enrollment in 1969.

Read more here:

And here:,_Texas

Pg. 44 - Eleventh Armored - Teddy Jr: "I fought over here, with the Eleventh Armored."

"The Thunderbolts"

external image 200px-11th_US_Armored_Division_SSI.svg.png

The 11th Armored Division has a proud and distinguished heritage. It served with honor to defend the nation, and to preserve the cherished freedom that the United States of America and its citizens have long enjoyed. The Division was activated on August 15, 1942, at Camp Polk, Louisiana. Soon after the Division was formed and staffed, a period of intense training ensued, first in Louisiana, then in Texas, and finally in California. In September, 1944, the well armed and equipped Division embarked for Europe, landing in England for final staging and preparation for combat. In early December, 1944, the Division deployed to the continent, landing in France, and making preparations to attack German pockets of resistance on the coast of Brittany.

When enemy forces mounted a desperate attack in the Ardennes Forest of Belgium, the Division was rerouted, rushed across France, and committed into action in what was soon to be known as the Battle of the Bulge. The 11th Armored Division was then assigned to the US Third Army, commanded by General George Smith Patton. Upon reaching the battle zone, the Division attacked, encountering a simultaneous headlong attack by German units that were seeking to close off the recently opened corridor into besieged Bastogne. Although sustaining heavy battle casualties, the Division continued the attack, closing with US First Army units on January 16, 1945 at Houffalize, Belgium, finally terminating the "Bulge" incursion.

A Brief History of the Thunderbolt Division
The 11th Armored Division was activated on August 15, 1942 at Camp Polk, Louisiana. From that date until June, 1944, the Division underwent combat training at Polk and Camp Barkeley Texas, desert maneuvers at Camp Ibis, California, and combat readiness training at Camp Cooke, California.
In July 1944, preparations began for overseas deployment. On September 27th, the division embarked from Staten Island, New York, aboard the troop ships HMS Samaria and USS Hermitage to join the largest Atlantic convoy of WWII. On October 12th the troops disembarked on English soil, moving into training quarters on and near the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire.
In early December, the Division was deployed to continental Europe, landing in Normandy, and moving south to a marshaling area at Rennes. The intended mission was to reduce remaining pockets of enemy resistance along the French coast at Lorient and Saint Nazaire.
The German attack through the Ardennes caused an abrupt change of orders. The Division embarked on one of the most grueling forced marches in American military history, covering over 350 miles across France in four days. By December 23rd, the division had joined General George S. Patton’s US Third Army, and was deployed defensively along a 30 mile reach of the Meuse River, extending from Sedan to Givet. Shortly afterward, orders came to advance another 85 miles northeasterly into Belgium, assuming attack positions in the vicinity of Neufchateau.
The first combat occurred on December 30th, when the Division engaged head-on the fanatical Füher Begleit Brigade and the Panzer Lehr Division south of Remagne. Over the next several days, a furious battle raged, as these enemy forces along with the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division and the 26th Volksgrenadier Division sought to close the relief corridor into Bastogne from the south. The 11th Armored and adjacent units fought them to a standstill. During this period, the Division suffered heavy casualties from enemy action, as well as from the bitter cold. However, the enemy paid a heavier price, and the vital supply line into Bastogne remained open.
On January 13th, the Division mounted a two pronged spearhead attack from the Bastogne enclave, moving from Longchamps northwesterly through Bertogne, and northeasterly through Foy and Noville to high ground south of Houffalize. Contact was made with the 2nd Armored Division of the First Army on January 16th, ending the Nazi ill fated attempt to reach Antwerp, to divide the allied forces, and to retake Luxembourg and Belgium. The enemy suffered huge losses in men and materiel, and the way was opened for an all out assault on the vaunted Siegfried line, and on Germany itself.

(Read more...)

Pg. 46 - Capture of Neufchateau-Bastogne - MARC (reading letter to Teddy Jr from Teddy Sr) "I am very surprised that you were one of the men
responsible for the capture of Neufchateau-Bastogne."

See above for Eleventh Armored involvement.

File:Bastogne resupply1944 sm.jpg
File:Bastogne resupply1944 sm.jpg

The Siege of Bastogne was an engagement between American and German forces at the Belgian town of Bastogne, as part of the larger Battle of the Bulge. The goal of the German offensive was the harbour at Antwerp. In order to reach it before the Allies could regroup and bring their superior air power to bear, German mechanized forces had to seize the roadways through eastern Belgium. Because all seven main roads in the Ardennes mountain range converged on the small town of Bastogne, control of its crossroads was vital to the German attack. The siege lasted from 20–27 December when the besieged American forces were relieved by elements of General George Patton's 3rd Army.

(read more...)

Pg. 47 - King Albert - MARC: "When I was a boy I idolized King Albert."
external image spacer.gif
Albert I - King of the Belgians

King Albert I
King Albert I

Albert I, King of the Belgians (1875-1934), is remembered especially for his strong leadership during World War I. He married Elizabeth, daughter of the Duke of Bavaria, in 1900 and succeeded Leopold II, his uncle, to the Belgian throne in 1909.
He was born in Brussels and educated privately at the École Militaire. Before his accession to the throne he bore the title Count of Flanders. His democratic manner made him the most popular member of the reigning house. He travelled widely and was a student of politics and economics. In 1898 and again in 1919 he visited the U.S. In 1900 he made an extended tour of the Belgian Congo and on his return to Belgium urged the need of railroad development and of reform in the treatment of the Congolese; when he became King, he ordered many improvements in the administration of this colony.

King Albert I
King Albert I
While on a visit to Berlin in 1913, Albert was informed of Germany's plans for war by emperor William II. He immediately warned France and on 31 July 1914, sent a personal letter to the German emperor informing him that Belgium would remain neutral. When the letter was ignored, Albert assumed active command of his army and directed a successful delaying action against invasion. In August 1914, when the German armies demanded right of passage through Belgium, Albert refused the ultimatum and assumed personal command of the Belgian armed forces in resisting the German advance. He remained in the small, unoccupied area of Belgium throughout the war, and in September 1918 led Belgian and French troops in the final Allied offensive.
After World War I he played an active role in the reconstruction of his country and in 1919 made a plea to the Allies for the abolition of the Treaty of London, which made Belgium neutral ground and thus vulnerable to invasion. As a result, the abolition of the treaty was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. Albert supported general industrial expansion and the development of a strong merchant fleet as the best methods of national recovery. He also helped introduce a new monetary system in 1926.

In 1934 he was killed by a fall while mountain climbing and was deeply mourned by the Belgian people. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Leopold III.

Further info: